I am delighted to be the recipient of one of the Professional Development Bursaries awarded by a-n this year. I am a glass designer maker and have been working on architectural glass projects since 1996. Glass is a seductive medium, very versatile and offers so many creative approaches. In my work I use a range of techniques, traditional or cutting-edge, to interpret my designs, and I am always curious and eager to learn new techniques or to play with materials employed on different applications as well.

I shall be using this Blog to document the research I have been doing into the feasibility of incorporating Thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) within the design of glass artworks.

Although a glass installation placed in an architectural space will naturally show a dynamic interaction as the ambient light changes, I wanted to push this attribute further, with the overall objective of providing glass art installations that will dynamically react in some way with changes in the environment.

Liquid crystals are matter in a state that has properties between those of conventional liquid and those of solid crystal. There are many types of liquid crystals but, specifically, the Thermochromic group exhibits a transition into the liquid-crystal phase through a colour spectrum when subjected to temperature changes. It is this colour transition that I want to utilise within my work with glass.

In my next post, I will describe some of the work and the results I have already done and also what I intend to do and achieve over the next few months, thanks to the a-n Bursary.

I hope that others will find this an interesting topic and If anyone would like to find out more, then please don’t hesitate to contact me at: [email protected].


Dear Blog, it is now some time since my last post and lots has been happening since then:

  • I have applied to submit my work in a London gallery – invited to submit some work, but then rejected at the second stage;
  • I have applied for a commission and been accepted for a collaborative approach to the brief to be developed with another glass maker. It will be challenging but, hopefully, constructive;
  • applied for a group exhibition at the Devon Guild next year to describe the commissioning process. Selections will be made in September), so I will have to wait until then before I know if I have been selected or not;
  • I also spent some time in France working on a completely different front.

I have to admit, the rejection was the hardest to accept. I have waited years before applying, probably due to the fear of being rejected.

There is an Italian song that says: “….and of unsuccesses never talk about…..”. Instead I believe we should all shout louder about them and share our feelings, because rejection means a failure and that could undermine our own fragile self confidence (easily done in the current climate with so few opportunities on offer).

…. and last, but not least, – most of the TLC samples I made using my DIY facility for EVA lamination have started to show bad signs of de-lamination. It must be to do with the lamination process itself, because samples where TLCs weren’t included have also been affected. When trying any new product or process time is always an important test; waiting and observing closely and patiently for any effects over time.

I need to understand what is the cause of this but, in the meantime, I have decided to start some major works using the TLCs and process that have demonstrated a stable outcome and to treat these as prototypes.
One of the more interesting aspect of experimenting with TLCs is that it is possible to apply different layers of them that will react at different temperature ranges. The image below shows the dynamic changes that result.


Back to the future….. Since starting my research I have always relied on the effect of the sun as the major activator for the colour change in my TLCs. Of course, the amount of change depends on the weather conditions, time of the day and season and, while I appreciate the unpredictability of the natural variants, I started to think about the flexibility of having the glass installation installed in front of a wall or in the middle of the room instead of against a window.

So, I started to look for ways to heat the glass electrically and I tried incorporating ITO coated glass in the lamination with TLCs (ITO is a transparent, electrically conductive coating that is applied to the glass and will heat up if an electric current is applied).

Unfortunately, I am now entering the unfamiliar territory of electronics and I have serious problems understanding many of the technical details… Anyway, I did some tests using ITOGLASS 12 (12 ohms/square ITO) and got some effective results as this video shows – Glass Changing Colour with TLCs

To apply electricity to the glass I used conductive adhesive copper tape, conductive paint or metal mesh. Since glass is transparent and all of these will be visible, it is important to position them in such a way that they become a decorative element of the overall design..

It is interesting to see how the heat spreading over the glass depends on the different locations of the electrical connections.

Before I commit myself to a specific method I also want to try using ITO Polyester film coated on one side with some TLCs instead of ITO glass. Another option worth trying is to laminate a Thermal-clear Transparent Heater to the glass. The major problem with all these options is that the materials are very expensive and, generally, have to be imported from the US. I’ve been trying to exercise my charms to get suppliers to let me have small samples instead of having to buy complete sheets, but I am rapidly running out of favours!

I’ve booked a space for a solo exhibition at the Devon Guild of Craftsmen next year to show what I have been doing, so I am now under pressure to actually get some work completed and ready to show!!


Having got frustrated with a lack of progress with the TLCs this week I decided to switch my attention to another project hoping to finish it in time for the Summer Exhibition at the Devon Guild. Some time ago I bought three boxes full of old glass photographic negatives (I am always attracted by everything in glass!) from a charity shop in France. “Plaques séches au gélatino-bromure d’argent” it says on the cover. They are mainly portraits of women, posing in a formal way typical of pictures taken at the beginning of the century and create a fascinating insight into the social history of the period, but there are no details about the identity of the sitters.

Probably they are wearing their best clothes for the shot. Details such as the background in front of a window outside a house with the same chair and window that appear in most of the negatives, build a narrative in my imagination. They probably form the archive of the photographer and I have decided to make a glass construction with part of this precious archive, a collection of forgotten faces.

The portraits will be incorporated inside small glass pyramids that, once put together, will form a kind of hanging tapestry.

Getting the angles of the edges of the pyramids just right will be crucial to ensure that the sides are well bonded when I construct the pyramids. Unfortunately, geometry and maths have never been my strong point, but I think that I have found a way to calculate the angles. I’m now facing lots of boring grinding and UV bonding before I can start on the the final assembly of the construction. I have decided to call it “The other face of the moon”…. (Don’t ask me why?)


In order to address the compatibility problems of the TLCs with the silicone, I have decided to try a different lamination process using EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) film. Initially, I approached a commercial company to do some tests for me, but it was clear that they weren’t really interested and I have now invested in procuring a silicone vacuum bag and a vacuum unit so that I have the freedom to do as many tests as I need with my own facilities.

From the tests done so far it is evident that the EVA film is less heat conductive than silicone, but doesn’t appear to show any signs of incompatibility. Perhaps this was a turning in the right direction through my maze!