Taking the Liverpool Biennial, Folkestone Triennial and Istanbul Biennial as case studies, argues that the UK provision of public funding ensures that the Liverpool and Folkestone events are rooted in their locations and are mostly relevant to their multiple communities. The reliance on private sponsorship in Istanbul has the opposite effect, making for an event that aims its exhibitions at the elite of the international art world, with little impact on Istanbul or its indigenous arts infrastructure.

Dany Louise
University of Brighton
January 2015
Destination biennale: an examination of the interface between biennials of art and public policy within a neo-liberal context